Structural Analysis - Important Concepts

Structure is defined as a system of interconnected members assembled in a stable configuration and used to support a load or combination of loads. We can classify the Structures in many ways. Based on the type; solid, frame, shell, membrane, composite etc. Based on usage; building, bridge, dam, tunnel, retaining wall, railway, road, canals, aqueduct, chimney, offshore plateforms etc. Based on material; timber, steel, concrete, composite, masonry etc. A structure can be one-dimensional (beam, column, cable etc.), two-dimensional (membrane, plate, shell, slab, dome etc.) or a thhree-dimensional solid mass. A structure can be called as low-rise, high-rise, multi-storied, supertall, skyscraper etc.

golden gate bridge

Golden Gate Bridge

Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa

The load acting on the structure can have vertical or lateral effects on the structural components. The loads acting on the structures can be divided into following categories:

D Dead loads; L Live loads; F Fluid loads: W Wind loads;
S Snow loads; E Earthquake loads; T - Thermal Loads
H Earth pressure loads;

The structural members are connected together by providing different types of joints or supports. Most common types of supports are pin-jointed or hinged, roller support and fixed support. Every support provide some restraint (reaction) to the structural members connected to it. A pin-jointed support will develop two reactions on the connected member because it does not allow it to translate in any direction (along x and y) whereas the roller support can provide the reaction only in the direction other than movement of roller i.e, perpendicular to the surface on which the rollers are kept. A fixed support provide restraint to translation as well as rotation, therefore it has 3 reactions (2 forces and one moment). 

Structural Analysis is the branch which involves in the determination of behaviour of structures such as Buildings, Bridges, Dams, Towers, Offshore Platforms, Retaining Walls,  Truss, Foundations and Stadiums. The concepts of Statics provide basis for solutions to the structures. Computer software are also being used for the calculation of forces, bending moment,  stress, strain and deformation or deflection for complex structural systems. Sophisticated equipments are also used for investigating the structural response under different types of loading. Basic concepts of applied mechanics are essential before structural analysis. Structural analysis provides the basis for Structural Design.

A structure can be statically determinate or indeterminate.

Statically determinate structures

A structure is termed as statically determinate if all of its unknown forces can be determined by using only the equations of static equilibrium. For example cantilever, simply supported beam etc.

What is statically indeterminate structure

You can also select from the following links of solved examples to get prepared for your exams like GATE and GRE.

Excellent Calculators

Stress Transformation Calculator
Calculate Principal Stress, Maximum shear stress and the their planes

Calculator for Moving Load Analysis
To determine Absolute Max. B.M. due to moving loads.

Bending Moment Calculator
Calculate bending moment & shear force for simply supported beam

Moment of Inertia Calculator
Calculate moment of inertia of plane sections e.g. channel, angle, tee etc.

Reinforced Concrete Calculator
Calculate the strength of Reinforced concrete beam

Moment Distribution Calculator
Solving indeterminate beams

Deflection & Slope Calculator
Calculate deflection and slope of simply supported beam for many load cases

Fixed Beam Calculator
Calculation tool for beanding moment and shear force for Fixed Beam for many load cases

BM & SF Calculator for Cantilever
Calculate SF & BM for Cantilever

Deflection & Slope Calculator for Cantilever
For many load cases of Cantilever

Overhanging beam calculator
For SF & BM of many load cases of overhanging beam

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