**Structural Analysis - Important Concepts**

**Structure **is defined as a system of interconnected members
assembled in a stable configuration and used to support a load or
combination of loads. We can classify the Structures in many ways. Based on the type; solid, frame, shell, membrane, composite etc.
Based on usage; building, bridge, dam, tunnel, retaining wall, railway, road, canals, aqueduct, chimney, offshore plateforms etc. Based on material; timber, steel, concrete, composite, masonry etc. A structure can be one-dimensional (beam, column, cable etc.), two-dimensional (membrane, plate, shell, slab, dome etc.) or a thhree-dimensional solid mass. A structure can be called as low-rise, high-rise, multi-storied, supertall, skyscraper etc.

Golden Gate Bridge

Burj Khalifa

The load acting on the structure can have vertical or lateral effects on the structural components. The loads acting on the structures can be divided into following categories:

D – Dead loads; L – Live loads; F – Fluid loads: W
– Wind loads;

S – Snow loads; E – Earthquake loads; T - Thermal Loads

H – Earth pressure loads;

The structural members
are connected together by providing different types of joints or
supports. Most common types of supports are pin-jointed or hinged,
roller support and fixed support. Every support provide some
restraint (reaction) to the structural members connected to it. A
pin-jointed support will develop two reactions on the connected member
because it does not allow it to translate in any direction (along x
and y) whereas
the roller support can provide the reaction only in the direction
other than movement of roller i.e, perpendicular to the
surface on which the rollers are kept. A fixed support provide
restraint to translation as well as rotation, therefore it has 3
reactions (2 forces and one moment).

**Structural
Analysis
**is the branch which involves in the determination of behaviour of structures such
as Buildings, Bridges, Dams, Towers,
Offshore Platforms, Retaining Walls,
Truss, Foundations and Stadiums. The concepts of Statics provide basis for
solutions to the structures. Computer software are also being used for the calculation
of forces,
bending moment, stress,
strain and deformation or
deflection for complex
structural systems. Sophisticated
equipments
are
also used for investigating the structural response under
different types of loading. Basic concepts of
applied
mechanics are essential before structural analysis. Structural
analysis provides the basis for Structural Design.

A structure can be statically determinate or indeterminate.

**Statically determinate structures**

A structure is termed as statically determinate if all of its unknown forces can be determined by using only the equations of static equilibrium. For example cantilever, simply supported beam etc.

What is statically indeterminate structure

Stress Transformation Calculator

Calculate Principal Stress, Maximum shear stress and the their planes

Calculator for Moving Load Analysis

To determine Absolute Max. B.M. due to moving loads.

Bending Moment Calculator

Calculate bending moment & shear force for simply supported beam

Moment of Inertia Calculator

Calculate moment of inertia of plane sections e.g. channel, angle, tee etc.

Reinforced Concrete Calculator

Calculate the strength of Reinforced concrete beam

Moment Distribution Calculator

Solving indeterminate beams

Deflection & Slope Calculator

Calculate deflection and slope of simply supported beam for many load cases

Fixed Beam Calculator

Calculation tool for beanding moment and shear force for Fixed Beam for many load cases

BM & SF Calculator for Cantilever

Calculate SF & BM for Cantilever

Deflection & Slope Calculator for Cantilever

For many load cases of Cantilever

Overhanging beam calculator

For SF & BM of many load cases of overhanging beam

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