**Land Surveying**

**Land Surveying **is the process by which a surveyor measures certain
dimensions that generally occur on the surface of the earth using modern
surveying equipments, They produce maps with accurate measurement of angular
deviation, horizontal, vertical and slope distances. From these measurements
they calculate the
area and volume required for different
construction works. The knowledge of
engineering graphics is also required to plot the maps.

Sophisticated equipments like theodolite, digital level, total station, compass, distometer, clinometer, planimeter, levelling staff etc. are required to measure the distance and angle with high degree of precision.

Latest techniques of GPS (Global Positioning System) and Remote Sensing are also being used by surveyors.

Land surveying plays an important role in construction process of buildings, roads, canals, dams, bridges etc.

Do you know that the total surface area of the Earth is 510
million km^{2}. 29.2% of this area is covered by land
(149 million km^{2}), and 70.8% of this area is covered by
water (361 million km^{2}).

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