**Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Fluid Properties**

There are three states of matter which are recognised e.g.
solid, liquid, gas. Solid can resist deformation but liquid and gas
can not., so they flow under the action of force.

A Fluid is defined as a substance which deforms continuously, or
flows, when subjected to shearing forces. Both liquid and gas come
under the category of fluid.

Shear stresses are developed when the particles of fluid move
with respect to one another. In real world shear forces are present
when we consider flow past solid boundaries; aeroplanes, cars, pipe
walls, river channels etc.

Some basic definitions are important to understand

1. **Specific gravity**
or relative density is defined as the ratio of the density of a
substance to the density of some standard substance at a specified
temperature (usually water at 4 °C, and atmospheric pressure having
a density of 1000 kg/m^{3}).
Specific gravity is a dimensionles quantity.

2. **Specific weight** is the weight of a unit volume of a
substance. Specific weight=specific gravity X acceleration due
to gravity.

3.

All fluids are viscous in nature. "Newtonian Fluids" obey the linear relationship given by Newton's law of viscosity. which states that shear stress is directly proprtional to velocity gradient.

4

In a fluid mass, each molecule is pulled equally in every direction by neighboring molecules, resulting in a net force of zero. The molecules at the surface do not have other molecules on all sides of them and therefore are pulled inwards. This phenomena develops some internal pressure and forces the liquid surfaces to contract to the minimum area.Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area.

Surface tension can be defined as the energy required to stretch a unit change of a surface area. Surface tension decreases with increase in temperature.

5.

Do you know what is Bernoulli equation and

Continuity equation

Hoover dam is an arch-gravity dam constructed on Colorado river in USA.

Hoover dam

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