Cement Concrete - Materials and Production

Concrete is a construction material which is composed of Cement (generally Portland cement), coarse aggregate (gravel, limestone, or granite), fine aggregate (such as sand) and water.  Concrete is required to be workable, finishable, durable, strong, watertight and wear resistant to be used a structural material. Generally these are obtained by proper selection of materials

Sometimes admixtures are also added to concrete  to give it special properties required to meet certain conditions.

Recycled materials are also being used as concrete ingredients and getting popularity as it helps in pollution control and clean environment.

Fly ash which is a bye-product of coal-fired power plants has a cementitious property  which when added to concrete, reduces the cement content required to produce a concrete of desired strength.

Concrete becomes solid mass after cement mix with water which is a chemical reaction known as hydration of cement. The process of solidifying concrete is known as setting of concrete which depends on the type of cement used in the concrete mix.

Concrete is a brittle material which is strengthened by using steel reinforcement bars (rebar), plates or fibers; such a concrete is termed as reinforced concrete.

Proper selection of materials in appropriate proportions is very important to get the desired properties of concrete. This is covered in concrete mix design. There are different methods for mix design. Absolute volume method developed by American Concrete Institute (ACI) is one of the most commonly adopted methods.

You can also select from the following links of solved examples to get prepared for your exams like GATE and GRE.

Excellent Calculators

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Calculate Principal Stress, Maximum shear stress and the their planes

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To determine Absolute Max. B.M. due to moving loads.

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Calculate bending moment & shear force for simply supported beam

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Calculate moment of inertia of plane sections e.g. channel, angle, tee etc.

Reinforced Concrete Calculator
Calculate the strength of Reinforced concrete beam

Moment Distribution Calculator
Solving indeterminate beams

Deflection & Slope Calculator
Calculate deflection and slope of simply supported beam for many load cases

Fixed Beam Calculator
Calculation tool for beanding moment and shear force for Fixed Beam for many load cases

BM & SF Calculator for Cantilever
Calculate SF & BM for Cantilever

Deflection & Slope Calculator for Cantilever
For many load cases of Cantilever

Overhanging beam calculator
For SF & BM of many load cases of overhanging beam

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